Mary Ann R. Garcia, DNP, MSN, RN, Chamberlain University
Diabetes is a major public health problem worldwide. It is characterized by an increase in blood sugar levels and may manifest as either Type-1 or Type-2 diabetes mellitus (American Diabetes Association [ADA], 2018). Diabetes poses a significant economic burden due to its high diagnostic and treatment costs. In the year 2017, $327 billion were utilized in the diagnosis of diabetes (ADA, 2018). Additionally, more than 2.4 million residents of the state of Florida are diabetics, with more than 5.8 million people being confirmed to be in the early stages of diabetes development (Tabák, Herder, Rathmann, Brunner, & Kivimäki, 2012). These figures are more than double that of diabetes prevalence of the past two decades (Dabelea et al., 2014).
Existence of racial and ethnic disparities in the criminal justice system has been a long-standing, well-researched occurrence. This is true in the juvenile justice system as well. In fact, racial and ethnic disparities exist in every processing stage in juvenile justice, and they worsen as a child continues deeper into the system (Majumdar, 2017). Nationally, the African American youth population is only 16% of the entire youth population (Bureau of Justice Statistics, 2012). However, African American youth comprise 32% of all juvenile arrests, 36% of juvenile court cases, and 40% of incarcerated youth (Anderson, 2015). Black youth are also five times more likely to be arrested for person-related crimes, two times more likely to be arrested for property or drug crimes, and nine times more likely to receive an adult prison sentence, in comparison to similar White youth (Jones, 2016).
Victims of sex trafficking often find themselves stuck in a frightful time warp from their past, even after they are rescued. The main reasons for their inability to move forward are a criminal record and inadequate mental health support, particularly in cases of prostitution. Several studies have identified the need for mental health and aftercare for the victims of sex trafficking. Many of these victims experience symptoms, including post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), previously identified as a contributor to criminogenic behavior. This paper reviews these issues and recommends using Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT) as a form of aftercare for the victims of sex trafficking, in addition to the full vacatur of criminal record in all states, for enabling a stable lifestyle and reducing the risk of criminality or re-victimization. These recommendations are intended for government task forces and criminal justice stakeholders working against sex trafficking, as these individuals hold power to enact legislation and reduce the burden placed on the victims.
The purpose of this paper is to discuss the current status of existing evidence-based health education programs designed for K-12 students. The content of well-informed K-12 health education programs is intended to clarify definitions and reduce future at-risk and criminal behaviors. This may include evidence-based curriculums encompassing such topics as mental health, sexual education, learning difficulties, sexuality, bullying, suicide, substance abuse, biological puberty, and more. However, the focus here will be on sexual education curriculums for K-12 health education programs. The goal is to evaluate whether existing health programs properly educate K-12 students about recognizing and practicing positive interactions within sexual situations. The intended audience includes legislators and school administrators who effect policy changes in K-12 academic public-school curricula (specifically sex education), with the expectation of enhancing course content to be more comprehensive and to decrease the likelihood of at-risk and criminal behavior in the future, both in the U.S. and perhaps globally (Leung, Shek, Leung, & Shek, 2019).