Stop and Frisk: A Proactive Response or Bias-Based Policing?

overhead shot

George M. Froggé, Austin Peay State University

Crime detection and prevention are two important duties performed by police on a daily basis. There is a fine line to observe when it comes to crime prevention and protecting an individual’s Constitutional rights. Advocates for implementing the crime control model would agree with routine enforcement of stop-and-frisk, as a proactive police response. On the other end of the spectrum, proponents of the due process model pose it is just another form of bias-based policing and racially motivated. This paper will discuss the concept of stop-and-frisk, while giving the reader an opportunity to determine if it is a proactive police response to crime or bias-based policing.

Read more: Stop and Frisk: A Proactive Response or Bias-Based Policing?

Suicide Among College Students

suicides

Ewa K. Zielinska, University of New Haven

Suicide, “an inward-directed act of violence,” has been a consistent problem in the United States and internationally (Title & Paternoster, 2000). According to the 2016 National Center for Health Statistics Brief, “suicide is an important public health issue involving psychological, biological, and societal factors” (Curtin, Wagner, & Hedegaard, 2016, p. 1). Based on data between 1999 and 2013, the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) places suicide as one of 15 leading causes of death for individuals between 10 and 64 years of age, especially among adolescents and young adults. In 2013, suicide was the second leading cause of death among all races and sexes for ages 10-24, and the fifth for ages 25-44 (see Figure 1.)

Read more: Suicide Among College Students

Evidence-Based Practices in Corrections: From On-Paper to the Front-Line

corrections

Kristi L. Greenberg, University of New Haven

Evidence-based practices are accepted as the gold standard within criminal justice agencies. In some instances, what works on paper is carried out effectively in the field, whereas in others, barriers are met by the realities of the front line. In corrections, there are eight accepted principles believed to reduce recidivism of offenders: the use of risk assessments, the need to enhance motivation, targeting interventions, matching offender traits with interventions, use of cognitive behavioral therapy, strengthening pro-social influences, adhering to program principles, and the use of data to guide actions (NCSC, 2018). These principles and the challenges perceived to their implementation are discussed below, from the point of view of a practitioner working in an institutional correctional setting.

Read more: Evidence-Based Practices in Corrections: From On-Paper to the Front-Line

Community Policing

community policing

Marquita D. Higgins, Walden University

Community policing exists to enhance public trust in law enforcement officers. In contrast to the focus of traditional policing, community-oriented policing focuses on the community’s involvement in law enforcement’s efforts to prevent crime (Gill, Weisburd, Telep, Vitter, & Bennett, 2017). Community policing policy is always in progress. It was first implemented in the United States in the 1980s, and since then, the policy has changed very little (Adegbile, 2017). The focus remains on strengthening community-policing relationships. Community policing units are designed to respond to minor problems in the community, whereas the patrol officers are free to respond to calls regarding crimes. One of the objectives of the community policing approach is to make neighborhoods safer through cooperation with the public.

Read more: Community Policing

A Critique of Current Youth Drug Addiction Policy

clean-slate-2nd-chance

Timothy Daty, University of New Haven

Substance abuse among adolescents is a growing public health concern within the United States. While adolescents account for roughly 8% of all substance abuse treatment admissions (SAMHSA, 2016), Winters and colleagues (2013) assert that only 10% of adolescents in need of drug therapy are actually receiving treatment. While illicit drug use extends across multiple age groups, initiation during adolescence can prove especially harmful to these youth. For adolescents, early substance use makes them more susceptible to drug addiction and dependence (Hurd, Michaelides, Miller, & Jutras-Aswad, 2013). In addressing this issue, national policies often center around two principle facets: drug education and applying standard treatment for teenage abusers. Unfortunately, current policies for these two facets are proving to be inferior and even ineffective when applied to this issue. Policymakers should reevaluate these policies and explore new avenues, particularly those in drug prevention and treatment. For adolescent substance abuse, superior policy alternatives exist that are better suited for adolescent substance abuse.  

Read more: A Critique of Current Youth Drug Addiction Policy

Fear of Crime: A Problem Oriented Solution

clean-slate-2nd-chance

Joseph Dule, University of New Haven

Since the late 1960’s, fear of crime has become one of the most heavily politicized issues in American society.  Research consistently shows that personal fear of crime is associated with increased levels of anxiety, withdrawal from social activities, decline in social integration, and changes to daily personal behaviors (Zhao, Lawton, & Longmire, 2015).  Consequently, cities have become increasingly proactive in trying to improve their attractiveness, livability, and overall vitality.  Reducing fear of crime has become an integral part of this strategy, as it is believed that the creation of safe and enjoyable city centers and downtown areas will also attract more visitors and boost consumer spending (Brands, Schwanen, & Aalst, 2013). 

What remains widely undisputed is that high fear of crime in society is not healthy, and generates negative personal and neighborhood consequences. What remains less clear, however, is an understanding of which policies actually reduce fear of crime, have no impact, or make the problem worse.  The most common governmental approach to reduce fear of crime has been to increase surveillance and policing efforts (Brands, Schwanen, & Aalst, 2013).  This paper will attempt to elucidate the impact policing measures have on fear of crime, as well as some of their more general crime reduction benefits.

Read more: Fear of Crime: A Problem Oriented Solution

Inmate Furlough and Beyond—A Question of Punishment or Rehabilitation

clean-slate-2nd-chance

Mengbei Wang, University of New Haven

In recent years, prison overcrowding has become a highly visible issue in the field of criminal justice.  Although the costs of imprisoning offenders are high, the majority view in American society is that greater incarceration protects the public.  In reality, however, most criminals cannot be locked up in prison forever.  Every year, a large number of individuals finish serving their time and are released to the community; more than half of these released prisoners return to prison (Alahdadi, 2016).  Inmates experience difficulties in re-entering the community and are more likely to engage in criminal activities, resulting in a return to prison.  All of these problems (prison overcrowding, failures of the prison system, and the associated high costs) result in a great interest in finding alternatives to incarceration.  Policymakers, therefore, realize they should pay greater attention to a wide range of remedies by which to reduce crime, instead of relying exclusively on incarceration. 

Temporary release for prisoners has become one of the pathways to eventual prisoner reintegration and is becoming more popular in the political arena.  The provision of prisoner “furloughs” consists of an authorized temporary release from prison, allowing incarcerated individuals to readjust gradually to life on the outside.  Empirical studies on prison furlough programs initially yielded positive results (Jeffery & Woolpert, 1974; LeClair, 1978; LeClair & Guarino-Ghezzi, 1991; Turner & Petersilia, 1996; Visher &Travis, 2003; Cheliotis, 2008; Cheliotis, 2009, Bales et al., 2015).  Furlough programs have both advantages and disadvantages, however.  After the Willie Horton incident in 1988, such studies and programs faded away.  This paper discusses the pros and cons of furlough programs, comparing and contrasting them to similar programs in China.  The aim is to make policy recommendations that attract policymakers’ attention and to realize a successful future for furlough programs.

Read more: Inmate Furlough and Beyond—A Question of Punishment or Rehabilitation

3 New BJA Solicitations

Here are 3 solicitations from the DOJ that may interest you

  • Justice Accountability Initiative (JAI): Pilot Projects Using Data-driven Systems To Reduce Crime and Recidivism
    https://www.bja.gov/JAI18
    Applications Due: July 30, 2018
  • Justice Accountability Initiative: National Training and Technical Assistance to support pilot projects using data-driven systems to reduce crime and recidivism
    https://www.bja.gov/JAITTA18
    Applications Due: July 30, 2018
  • Supporting Innovation: Field-Initiated Programs to Improve Officer and Public Safety
    https://www.bja.gov/Field18
    Applications Due: July 30, 2018

Second Chance Act in Action: A Case Study of Evidence-Based Approaches and a Researcher-Practitioner Partnership

clean-slate-2nd-chance
  • David L. Myers, PhD, University of New Haven
  • Daniel R. Lee, PhD, Indiana University of Pennsylvania
  • Dennis M. Giever, PhD, New Mexico State University 

Introduction

This issue of EBP Quarterly presents a second-year implementation and evaluation report for the Somerset County Day Reporting Center. This report, and the corresponding , present a case study of an SCA funded initiative that is utilizing various evidence-based approaches and evaluating process and behavioral outcomes through a researcher-practitioner partnership. This report illustrates many of the key findings uncovered in larger-scale SCA research, but also provides practical examples of program policies and procedures, strategic and action planning, organizational assessment, use of motivational interviewing, monitoring implementation, and assessing program performance. The importance of prior research findings, collaborative leadership, program fidelity, and data-driven decision-making also is presented in this report.

We hope you find this report and the corresponding documents useful as you consider the use of evidence-based approaches in your own agency. Links to the appendices follow below.

Read more: Second Chance Act in Action: A Case Study of Evidence-Based Approaches and a...

Incorporating Surveys to Improve Police-Community Partnerships

police-community-parternship

George M. Froggé, Austin Peay State University 

Abstract

In some cities, there is a strain on the relationships between the police and the communities they serve.  The use of effective communication is one key to improving police-community rapport.  These partnerships are the foundation for community policing. The implementation of police-community surveys are productive research tools for creating stronger partnerships. This paper will discuss several types of survey methods to improve police-community partnerships.

Read more: Incorporating Surveys to Improve Police-Community Partnerships